Fidya / Kaffara
What does kaffara mean?
Kaffara literally means the expiation of a sin or wrong act.
Kaffarafor broken fast
If one breaks the fast without reasons, he must first show sincere repentance to Allah. In addition, one is obliged to fast for two months without interruption. If one is unable to do it, so, he must feed 60 needy people. However, before breaking the two-month fast, one must first have sincerely tried or had the sincere will to do it. Otherwise, atonement in the form of donations instead of fasting is not valid because fasting takes precedence.
Kaffara for broken vows
In addition, Kaffara is to be paid in the event of a vow not being kept. Should one not keep one’s vow, 10 needy people must be fed or clothed as atonement.
What is fidya?
Fidya (also fidja) is a compensation and means substitution.
According to the majority of scholars, the fidya must be performed by those who cannot fast during Ramadan due to old age or chronic illness. In case of short-term illness, the respective day is simply post-fasted and it is not possible to perform the fidya instead. The fidya is used to feed one needy person for every day not fasted.
According to one of Prophet’s companions, the fidya also applies to the pregnant or nursing woman who has refrained from fasting out of concern for her baby. She performs the fidya for the missed days in the form of feeding a needy person instead of post-fasting.
It should be noted that the different schools of law sometimes have different views on the issues
– please ask the imam you trust!
For 10 francs per person a day, you can feed someone in need.
So, whoever of you is present during this month, let him fast it, but whoever is ill or on a journey, let him fast an equal number of other days. Allah desires for you ease; He does not desire for you difficulty, – that you may complete the number and praise Allah as the Greatest, for having guided you rightly, that you may be grateful. (Al-Baqara: 185)